Updated: Jul 14
Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments. They are also referred to as hydrophytes or macrophytes to distinguish them from algae and other microphytes. A macrophyte is a plant that grows in or near water and is either emergent, submergent, or floating Their are many kind of water plants in world, so today we will get to know about variety of water plant .so today in our list plants are -
1- Floating plants
2- Fixed plants
3- Underwater plants
. lets start so in starting all variety of plants are grown by different kind of method SOME SPICES ARE EASY TO GROW , SOME ARE HARD TO GROW , SOME ARE VERY RARE AND SOME ARE VERU COMMON SPICES
1 floating plants - floating plants are the plants which are grown above water they just freely float on water. Actually plants such as duckweed, mosquito fern, waterhyacinth, and watermeal are free floating. Submersed Floating-leaved - These plants are anchored by roots to the bottom of the pond, but their leaves and flowers grow to and float on the water surface.
Benefits- floting plantsz have lots OF (PROS AND CONS) SO NOW benefit plants like azzolla protect pond from moscutio , duck weed purify water and etc disatvantages-plants like azzola cover the pond totally .we are not able to see water in pond and small plants like frog bit get hide with azzola
A) Do floating plants clean water
Our results show that all three floating plants are effective at purifying the water. Further, duckweed significantly reduced the turbidity and number of bacteria in the water, suggesting it may be the most optimal water purifier among those three.
B) Do floating plants grow?
Floating aquatic plants grow quickly, they propagate quickly, they come together quickly, they don't need a lot of work...you don't even have to plant them since you can just toss them into your tank
C) How do floating plants float? A special type of parenchyma tissue called aerenchyma helps plants to float in water. It is present in aquatic and some land plants. Aerenchyma forms a spongy tissue that consists of air providing buoyancy to the floating plants.
D) What are the names of two floating plant? Two common undesirable or nuisance floating aquatic plants are Duckweed and Watermeal.
E) Is water lily is a floating plant?
Most species of water lilies have rounded and variously notched waxy-coated leaves on long stalks that contain many air spaces and float in quiet freshwater habitats
.F) Which plant is Hydrilla? submerged aquatic plant hydrilla, (Hydrilla verticillata), submerged aquatic plant that is the sole member of the genus Hydrilla in the frog's-bit family (Hydrocharitaceae). Hydrilla is possibly native to Africa or Europe but has naturalized in lakes and streams around the world. G) Is Moss a floating plant?
Java Moss (Vesicularia dubyana) Although typically associated with cultivation on driftwood and rocks, java moss can float freely throughout your aquarium. Compared to other aquatic plants, java moss does not grow very quickly and can be planted if you desire.
H) Do all water plants float?
Aquatic plants float on water because they have buoyancy because of the presence of large air cavities in their parenchyma, and the parenchyma is known as aerenchyma. This makes them float on water.
I) What do floating plants eat?
Floating plants consume nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate from the water, while their photosynthesis produces oxygen in return. Thanks to their emersed leaves, they can just take the element carbon from the ambient air, therefore the use of a CO2-system is not mandatory.
2)- fixed plants
Hydrophytes which are connected to the soil by the root are called fixed plants. They are aquatic plants that are fixed to mud at the bottom of the pond and have an adherence to the soil.
Some floating water plants are rooted in the soil at the bottom of the water, with leaves that float on the surface of the water. Other floating water plants are not rooted in the soil at all; both their leaves and roots float.
Floating Water Plant Names
Many of the most well-known aquatic plants are floating water plants. Some examples of floating water plants are Asian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), American lotus (Nelumbo lutea), and both tropical and hardy water lilies (Nymphaea spp.)
What is known as fixed plants? Hint: Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in the water (saltwater or freshwater). To distinguish them from algae and other microphytes, they are also known as hydrophytes or macrophytes. Complete answer: A macrophyte is a plant that grows near or in water and can be emergent, submergent, or floating. Macrophytes in lakes and rivers provide cover for fish, a substrate for aquatic invertebrates, produce oxygen, and provide food for some fish and wildlife. Few plants, such as lotus and water-lily, have roots that anchor the plants in the mud at the bottom of the pond. They are known as fixed aquatic plants. The roots of such plants are fixed in the soil at the bottom of a pond. Lotus, Water Lilly, Hydrilla are some examples. A few fixed plant characteristics are as follows: - They have plate-like leaves that float above the surface of the water. - The stomata in the leaves are located on the top side. - Because fixed plants' steam is light and hollow, the leaves can float. - The stems are very flexible; as water flows through them, they flex and are not affected by the strong current. Many small aquatic animals use plants like duckweed as a home or to protect themselves from predators. Other well-known aquatic plants include floating hearts, water lily, lotus, and water hyacinth. Note: Aquatic plants require special adaptations to survive submerged or at the water's surface. The presence of lightweight internal packing cells, aerenchyma, is the most common adaptation, but floating leaves and finely dissected leaves are also common. Aquatic plants can only grow in water or soil that is frequently soaked in water. As a result, they are a common component of wetlands.
Fixed Plant Example: Detailed Explanations
Fixed plants are the aquatic plants to which the roots are attached or adhered to the mud or sand that is present in the bottom of the pond. Their roots are fixed to the base of the pond so they are called fixed plants. Here are few examples of the fixed plant example
Before we get into the fixed plant example and their description, we need to know about the characteristics of fixed plant examples. What are the features of fixed plant example?
Fixed plants are the type of aquatic plants in which their root system is attached to the bottom of the water resource, preferably a pond and the other shoots are on the top of the water.
The leaves of the fixed plant are very flat and disc in shape that is seen floating above the surface of the water.
The stomata in the leaves are also seen visibly as they are present on the upper side.
Fixed plant bodies are very light weight.
The stem of the fixed plant is hollow and light so that they can float and they do not get damaged in the flowing water.
The complete body of the fixed plant is so flexible that they do not get affected by the water current.
Now we will see about the fixed plant examples in detail. Lotus: Lotus
Lotus is well known to each and every person especially in India as it is the “National flower of India”.
The Kingdom to which the commonly known Lotus falls is Plantae
The Division of the fixed plant – lotus, is Magnoliophyta.
The Class of Lotus is Magnoliopsida.
The lotus plant falls under the Order : Proteales.
The Family name of the lotus plant is Nelumbonaceae.
The Genus of lotus is Nelumbo.
The Species of lotus plant is N. nucifera.
Their Scientific Name is “Nelumbo nucifera”.
They grow in different parts of India and they have their own trivial name based on the locality they are present in.
The other alternative names for the lotus are Ambal, Thamarai, Suriya kamal, Padma, Ambuja, Pankaja, Blue Lotus, Indian Lotus, Sacred Water lily, bean of India, Kamala, Kanwal, Kamal.
The leaves of the lotus plant are very flat and plane in shape that is seen floating above the surface of the water (
The stomata in the lotus are also seen visibly as they are present on the upper side(
Lotus flowers are very light weight and they are well known for their vibrant colour
The stem of the lotus is fiber rich and hollow light in weight so that they can float and they do not get damaged in the flowing water(
The complete body of the lotus is so flexible that they do not get affected by the water current.
The cultivation of lotus is with seeds that are sown on damp soil.
They require at least 6 hours of sunlight for preventing freezing.
“Nymphaea caerulea” is another species of Lotus plant.
The water lily is usually rounded flowers with wax coated petals and leaves.
The Kingdom of water lilies is Plantae.
The group of water lilies is Tracheophytes.
The Glade is Angiosperms for water lilies.
The Order water lily plant is Nymphaeales.
They fall under the Family of Nymphaeaceae.
The Genus of water lily plant is Nymphaea.
Their features are similar to that of lotus plants as they both fall under the fixed plant.
The leaves of the water lily plant are very flat and plain in shape that is seen floating above the surface of the water
The stomata in the water lily are also seen visibly as they are present on the upper side (
Water lily flowers are very light weight and they are well known for their vibrant color
The stem of the Water lily is hollow and light in weight so that they can float and they do not get damaged in the flowing water
The complete body of the Water lily is so flexible that they do not get affected by the water current.
Hydrilla which is also called the “Water thyme“.
They belong to the Kingdom– Plantae.
The Clade is Tracheophytes.
The Clade is Angiosperms.
The Clade is Monocots.
The Order is Alismatales.
The Family of hydrilla is Hydrocharitaceae.
The Genus of this plant is Hydrilla.
The Species is Hydrilla verticillata.
Hydrilla is a herbaceous perennial that has a stem upto 7 feet tall.
Hydrilla appear in bushes and they have leaves which are usually stripe-like structures in shape
What makes the fixed plants different from the floating plants?
Fixed plants are the aquatic plants to which the roots are attached or adhered to the mud or sand that is present in the bottom of the pond.Their roots are fixed to the base of the pond so they are called fixed plants.
Floating plants are the aquatic plants whose roots are not attached to the base of the soil, they just float on water.
Example of floating plants: Duckweed
Common Types of Underwater Plants
There are a plethora of aquatic plants that inhabit the seafloor. Some of these species are prevalent in specific areas.
Submerged aquatic vegetation includes plants that can survive wholly underwater, and the root systems grow into the floor sediment.
Marine plant species have various shapes and sizes. These plants help maintain ecological balance under the water.
Characteristics of Underwater Plants
Typically different types of underwater plants share a wide range of characteristics with one another.
For instance, some plants can survive underwater without cuticles
Cuticles are an essential part of the water plant that helps prevent excess loss of water.
Another notable characteristic of the aquatic plant is that the stomata remain open at all times.
The water pressure deep into the ocean is relatively high as a result structure of plants that live in water is quite robust.
Flat leaves help aquatic plants float on the surface. Some floating aquatic plants also have air sacs around them.
The roots of underwater plants are pretty small in comparison to plants found on the land.
The roots have a light structure that helps extract oxygen from the water.
There are three different forms of aquatic plants in nature.
Plants float above the water surface- In such plants, the roots float in water or remain rooted in the sediment.
Plants that remain entirely submerged- These are the plants that grow entirely underwater.
Plants found in swampy areas- Plants that grow in swampy have the lower portion submerged in water.
The remaining part of the plant sticks out of the water surface.
The following section discusses some of the common underwater plants under the sea.
1. Pondweed (Potamogeton)
This plant has thin leaves that grow around various water bodies.
It serves as a hiding place and food source for different aquatic animals.
Pondweed provides the much-needed oxygen in small water bodies.
It is a non-invasive plant that is native to most areas.
2. Muskgrass (Chara spp.)
It is a type of erect algae that helps maintain water bodies with an excess concentration of nutrients.
Muskgrass absorbs the nutrients from the water and provides food to fish and other aquatic organisms.
The thin straw-like stem is a characteristic feature of musk grass.
The branch consists of a single cell, and it turns flaccid when broken.
The easiest way of identifying musk grass is by its garlic-like solid smell.
3. Common Waterweed (Egeria Densa)
Water weeds have several branches along with a solid and narrow stem. The leaves grow out in whorls of 4 and are very dense.
The leaves of common waterweed can be fine-toothed, elliptical, or linear.
White-colored flowers with yellow anthers grow in these plants.
Excess growth of water weeds can completely cover small water bodies.
4. Bladderwort (Utricularia Purpurea)
It is a fixed aquatic plant that commonly grows in small water bodies with low nutrient content. Bladderwort is a carnivorous plant.
Typically, it appears like an organized mesh on the surface, but it forms a star-shaped structure with yellow flowers over time.
Black bladder-like structures hang into the water that traps tiny aquatic organisms.
5. Elodea (Elodea Canadensis)
This water living plants have a similar appearance to Egeria or hydrilla, but it is relatively smaller in size.
It has bright green leaves that grow in whorls of 3.
The shape of the leaves can be either elliptic or oblong.
Small white flowers grow on this plant during the mid-summer
6. Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
It is a highly invisible species of underwater plant. Boats avoid entering into water bodies that have Eurasian watermilfoil.
Small pieces of the plant break off, stick to sports, and then read themselves in other water bodies.
The leaves are fragile and limp when put out of water.
Surprisingly the plants can grow up to a length of 10 feet.
Leaves on this plant grow in circles of 3 to 5.
The reddish color of the stem helps in identifying these plants found in water.
7. Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum)
It is a type of aquatic plant that is devoid of any root structure.
The feather-like leaves grow out in whorls that look like a raccoon tail.
Coontail plants can quickly grow up to a length of 15 feet under deep water.
Underwater plants adapt in different ways to keep up with the changing environment.
There is an extensive range of aquatic plants, and each has distinctive characteristics.
Some of these plants float, while others are wholly or partially submerged underwater.
Plants found in water play an important role in sustaining aquatic life